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Sculpture Glossary

1/1 Anima and Animus
Applied Aesthetics armature
Artist's Edition. assemblage
Association: ACID/A©ID carving
casting Contrapposto
Finial Finish: Patina
Finish: Verdigris Hyper Link
Hyper Link Kinetic sculpture
maquette Medium: Alabaster
Medium: Arabescato marble Medium: Bateig sandstone
Medium: Bath Stone Medium: Borriol marble
Medium: Brass Medium: Bronze
Medium: Carrara marble Medium: Cement (Winerstone)
Medium: Clipsham limestone Medium: Clunch
Medium: Cold Cast Marble / Bronze Resin Medium: Colorado Yule marble
Medium: Crystacal plaster Medium: GRP
Medium: Hydrocal Medium: Kilkenny limestone
Medium: Labrador Medium: Lepine limestone
Medium: Moleanos stone Medium: Monk`s Park Limestone
Medium: Petit Granit Medium: Phosphor bronze
Medium: Plaster (Gypsum Crystacal R) Medium: Polyphant Stone
Medium: Richemont Stone Medium: Statuario marble
Medium: Steel (Weathering / Corten) Medium: Travertin Romano
Medium: Winterstone Post-nominal: AAEA
Post-nominal: AFC (WNAG) Post-nominal: AMNS
Post-nominal: ARBS Post-nominal: ARCA
Post-nominal: ARIBA Post-nominal: ARSA
Post-nominal: ARSMA Post-nominal: Artists Association in Smaland
Post-nominal: ASAF Post-nominal: ASEA
Post-nominal: ASWA Post-nominal: ATC
Post-nominal: AWCB Post-nominal: BA
Post-nominal: BAMM Post-nominal: BDWCA
Post-nominal: BFA Post-nominal: BWA
Post-nominal: CAA Post-nominal: CAAI
Post-nominal: CARCC Post-nominal: CARFAC
Post-nominal: CPA Post-nominal: CVO
Post-nominal: DA Post-nominal: DBS
Post-nominal: DFA Post-nominal: Dip AD
Post-nominal: DocFA Post-nominal: FBA
Post-nominal: FCSD Post-nominal: FLS
Post-nominal: FRBS Post-nominal: FRIBA
Post-nominal: FRSA Post-nominal: FSDC
Post-nominal: FWCB Post-nominal: GradDipFA
Post-nominal: HDFA Post-nominal: HRSA
Post-nominal: HuVAC Post-nominal: IGFA
Post-nominal: IPAA Post-nominal: ISC
Post-nominal: LCSS Post-nominal: LSDC
Post-nominal: MA Post-nominal: MAOE
Post-nominal: MBBS Post-nominal: MBE
Post-nominal: MCA Post-nominal: MCSD
Post-nominal: MEd Post-nominal: MFA
Post-nominal: MFAD Post-nominal: MIWAS
Post-nominal: MMCA Post-nominal: MRBS
Post-nominal: MSDC Post-nominal: MSIAD
Post-nominal: NDD Post-nominal: NEAC
Post-nominal: NESA Post-nominal: NSG
Post-nominal: NSS Post-nominal: PGCE
Post-nominal: PGDipFA Post-nominal: PhD
Post-nominal: PPRBA Post-nominal: PPRBS
Post-nominal: PPRIBA Post-nominal: PPRP
Post-nominal: PPRSMA Post-nominal: PPRWA
Post-nominal: PRBS Post-nominal: PSWA
Post-nominal: PVPSWA Post-nominal: RA
Post-nominal: RAAV Post-nominal: RBA
Post-nominal: RGI Post-nominal: RI
Post-nominal: RIBA Post-nominal: RMS
Post-nominal: ROI Post-nominal: RP
Post-nominal: RSA Post-nominal: RSMA
Post-nominal: RSW Post-nominal: RWA
Post-nominal: RWRHS Post-nominal: SAA
Post-nominal: SAC Post-nominal: SBA
Post-nominal: SCA Post-nominal: SEA
Post-nominal: SFP Post-nominal: SÍM
Post-nominal: SPS Post-nominal: SSA
Post-nominal: SSC Post-nominal: SSS
Post-nominal: Swedish Sculptors` Association Post-nominal: SWLA
Post-nominal: SWSA Post-nominal: UA
Post-nominal: UBA Post-nominal: USWA
Post-nominal: VAS Post-nominal: VPRBS
Post-nominal: VPRP Post-nominal: VPRSMA
Post-nominal: VPSWA Surreal

^ 1/1

This is another way of saying that the piece is only going to have one cast made , as in the case of some comissions, or sometimes in the case of a portrait. More usually it is with a sculpture that is fabricated rather than cast. Simply it is one of one ,a one off, or unique and no more will ever be made.

^Anima and Animus

The Anima and Animus, are in Carl Jung's school of analytical psychology, the unconscious or true inner self of an individual, as opposed to the persona, or outer aspect of the personality. In the unconscious of the male, it finds expression as a feminine inner personality: anima; equivalently, in the unconscious of the female, it is expressed as a masculine inner personality: animus.

^Applied Aesthetics

This refers in technical terms where a sculpture can be used for something useful like somewhere to sit, use as a gate, a door or as a table etc.
Conversley some thing that has a very high design, artistic or architectural element whilst still retaining its usefulness.


An armature is an internal frame or skeleton which supports a modelled sculpture. A typical armature for a small sculpture is made of heavy gauge wire, bent and twisted to form the basic shape. Often the armature is designed to leave one or more pins protruding from the base of the finished sculpture to facilitate attaching it to the plinth.

^Artist's Edition.

This is a term that refers to the extra casting an artist is allowed to make after the stated edition has been sold. It is theoretically for the artists collection, but more generally to be sold because it has been a popular piece.
Traditionally editions are in nines in the Uk and America; France goes to twelve,but the artist has to state what number he is aiming for at the first casting.Unlimited ones don't have to state this but are sometimes marked in a catalogue or on the piece as unlimited.


An assemblage is a sculpture constructed from found objects. Typically an assemblage does not disguise the original objects used, rather it either tries to show them in a new light, or forms a figurative sculpture from the collection of shapes.

^Association: ACID/A©ID

Anti Copying In Design. (


Carving is one of the oldest sculptural techniques. It is a reductive process; starting with a solid block, the sculptor removes material using chisels and other tools to 'reveal' the finished form. Traditional carving materials include stone, especially marble, and fine grained woods.


Casting is a method of producing one or more copies of a sculpture. Typically, the original sculpture is modelled as usual and covered with a moulding material which sets hard when dry. The mould is then separated to release the original sculpture. Once the mould is reassembled, the casting material is poured in to the void and left to set. Traditionally, molten bronze is used as the casting material, but modern alternatives include resin. When the cast sculpture has cooled, or cured, the mould is again separated to release it, and reassembled ready to cast the next copy.
The cast sculpture may then require some finishing work to remove mould lines and other imperfections. The sculptor may also wish to patinate the work to produce the final piece....


Contrapposto is an Italian term meaning 'counterpoise' used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs. This gives the figure a more dynamic, or alternatively relaxed appearance. It can also encompass the tension as a figure changes from resting on a given leg to walking or running upon it (so-called ponderation).


a sculpted decoration at the top of a gable, spire, or arched structure.

^Finish: Patina

Patina is a film on the surface of the sculpture. It can be from weathering or applied by the artist.

^Finish: Verdigris

A common name for the colour green. It can be in relation to a patina colour (from brass, copper bronze when exposed ti air for a time) or the colour of the sculptures constituent resin.

^Hyper Link

A Hyperlink is a swift connection between 2 or more

^Hyper Link

A Hyperlink is a swift connection between 2 or more

^Kinetic sculpture

Kinetic sculpture is sculpture which is designed to move. The movement can be driven by interaction with the viewer, or automatically using motors or air currents, as in the case of a mobile.


A maquette is a small scale model for a finished sculpture. It is used to visualise and test shapes and ideas without incurring the cost and effort of producing a full scale sculpture. It is the analogue of the painter's cartoon or sketch.
For commissioned sculptures, especially monumental public sculptures, a maquette may be used to show the client how the finished work will fit in the proposed site.

^Medium: Alabaster

Usually a type of gypsum and usually white in colour. A very soft stone.

^Medium: Arabescato marble

Arabescato is a predominately or mainly white Marble from Italy.

^Medium: Bateig sandstone

A sandstone from the Bateig region in Spain.

^Medium: Bath Stone

Bath Stone is a freestone, one that can be sawn or `squared up` in any direction. Sources mainly from the southwest of England. Warm and honey coloured.

^Medium: Borriol marble

A red marble from Borriol (Castellon), Spain.

^Medium: Brass

Brass is any alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. In comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin. Despite this distinction, some types of brasses are called bronzes. Brass has a muted yellow color, somewhat similar to gold. It is relatively resistant to tarnishing.

^Medium: Bronze

Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive, but sometimes with other elements such as phosphorus, manganese, aluminum, or silicon.

^Medium: Carrara marble

Carrara is a city in the province of Massa-Carrara (Tuscany, Italy), famous for the white or blue-gray marble quarried there. It is on the Carrione river, some 100 km west-northwest of Florence.

^Medium: Cement (Winerstone)

Winterstone is a sculpting medium developed by Sculptor, Lorne P. Winters, for direct modeling of finished sculpture.

^Medium: Clipsham limestone

Clipsham is a village well-known for its limestone quarries, located in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. This stone is from the Lincolnshire limestone formation.

^Medium: Clunch

Clunch is a traditional building material of chalky limestone rock used mainly in eastern England and Normandy.

^Medium: Cold Cast Marble / Bronze Resin

A modern method of casting sculptures in which the casting material is a resin mixed with powdered Bronze, Marble, Limestone, Copper, Iron Aluminium, and any other material mentioned . The finished sculpture has a surface which looks very similar to a traditionally cast bronze or stone etc. Although it tends to be much lighter, it weathers in much the same way as its parent. the price is often considerably different. It depends on the cost of the non resin element. for instance stone and stone resin is about half to a 3rd, while Bronze with its high Copper content can be a difference of 4 times.
There is a wide variety of terms for this mix in different countries, however 'Cold Cast Bronze' and 'Bronze Resin' are the generally accepted synonyms. If you have any doubt email me on

^Medium: Colorado Yule marble

Yule Marble is found in the West Elk Mountains of Colorado near the town of Marble, Colorado, USA. It is famous for its uniform pure white consistency.

^Medium: Crystacal plaster

A type of medium that is cast, that has high strength and a hard surface. Its main constituent is high purity gypsum mineral.

^Medium: GRP

Composite plastic fiberglass-reinforced polyester.

^Medium: Hydrocal

Hydrocal is a brandname plaster. A white gypsum cement.

^Medium: Kilkenny limestone

A deep blue black to subtle blue grey material.
Suitable for indorrs and outside use. From Kilkenny, Ireland.

^Medium: Labrador

Labrador is a type of granite, brown in colour.

^Medium: Lepine limestone

Lépine limestone (also known as Lavoux ŕ grain) is a limestone with some shells. It is extracted at the Lépine quarry at Lavoux, 14 km east of Poitiers (Vienne), France. It has a uniform off-white appearance and a fine rounded texture.

^Medium: Moleanos stone

A hard natural limestone from central Portugal. Extracted from the region around the town of Moleanos - Aljubarrota.

^Medium: Monk`s Park Limestone

The Monks Park mine is in Wiltshire, UK.
Less durable than stones such as Portland Whit Bed. It is a fine-grained, buff coloured stone.

^Medium: Petit Granit

Petit Granit is a black Limestone from Belgium. Also known as Nero Belga or Granit de Flandre. Can be blue or black in colour.

^Medium: Phosphor bronze

Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3.5 to 10% of tin and a significant phosphorus content of up to 1%. The phosphorus is added as deoxidizing agent during melting.

These alloys are notable for their toughness, strength, low coefficient of friction, and fine grain. The phosphorus also improves the fluidity of the molten metal and thereby improves the castability

^Medium: Plaster (Gypsum Crystacal R)

Crystacal R used for Displayware, giftware, chess pieces etc, reusable moulds; slower drying in slip moulds and slightly better definition than Herculite No 2, and much-favoured for life-casting work.

^Medium: Polyphant Stone

Polyphant is a village situated 5 miles west of the town of Launceston in Cornwall, England, UK. It lies near the convergence of the River Inny and Penpont Water. A variety of Talc, it is a greyish-green potstone flecked with white and brown.

^Medium: Richemont Stone

A type of limestone.

^Medium: Statuario marble

A statuary marble, white typically polished marble with rare veins. From Carrara, Italy. Also known as White Statuaro, Bianco Statuario, Statuario Carrara and Statuario Extra.

^Medium: Steel (Weathering / Corten)

Weathering steel, (best-known under the trademark Corten steel) is a group of steel alloys which were developed to obviate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years. The primary alloying addition in weathering steel is 2% copper.

^Medium: Travertin Romano

A beige Travertine from Italy.

^Medium: Winterstone

This is a superb new material sculptors are using to make their art. It is a powder to which water is added and which gradually hardens during which time it can be sculpted and maniputlated into any shape and which can have colour added to it at any time during the process.
Once it has hardened it can be carved like any other stone. It can be smoothed, polished and waxed and or coloured. Very versatile.
It can also be soaked into fabric like burlap or hessian to give an interesting and strong weather proof finish. See work by Roger Golden.

^Post-nominal: AAEA

The American Academy of Equine Art (

^Post-nominal: AFC (WNAG)

Artists for Conservation Foundation formerly the Worldwide Nature Artists Group (

^Post-nominal: AMNS

Archives de la Manufacture Nationale de Sevres (

^Post-nominal: ARBS

Associate of the Royal British Society of Sculptors (

^Post-nominal: ARCA

Alumni of the Royal College of Art (

^Post-nominal: ARIBA

Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects (

^Post-nominal: ARSA

Associate of the Royal Scottish Academician (

^Post-nominal: ARSMA

Associate of the Royal Society of Marine Artists (

^Post-nominal: Artists Association in Smaland

Smĺlands Konstnärsförbund, (Artists association in Smĺland) Sweden (

^Post-nominal: ASAF

Société des Artistes Français (Associate of the Society of French Artists) (

^Post-nominal: ASEA

Associate, Society of Equestrian Artists. (

^Post-nominal: ASWA

Associate of the Society of Women Artists (

^Post-nominal: ATC

Art Teachers Certificate

^Post-nominal: AWCB

Associate, The Worshipful Company of Blacksmiths (

^Post-nominal: BA

Bachelor of Arts

^Post-nominal: BAMM

British Association for Modern Mosaic (

^Post-nominal: BDWCA

The British Bird Carvers Association (British Decoy Wood Carvers Association) (

^Post-nominal: BFA

Bachelor of Fine Arts

^Post-nominal: BWA

British Woodcarvers Association (

^Post-nominal: CAA

Cambridge Art Association (

^Post-nominal: CAAI

Ceramics Artists Association of Israel (

^Post-nominal: CARCC

Canadian Artists Representation Copyright Collective (

^Post-nominal: CARFAC

Canadian Artists' Representation (Le Front des artistes Canadiens) (

^Post-nominal: CPA

Professional Member of the Craft Potters Association. (

^Post-nominal: CVO

Commanders of the Royal Victorian Order

^Post-nominal: DA

Diploma of Art

^Post-nominal: DBS

Dansk Billedhuggersamfundet - The Royal Danish Society of Sculptors. (

^Post-nominal: DFA

Doctor of Fine Arts

^Post-nominal: Dip AD

Diploma in Art and Design

^Post-nominal: DocFA

Doctor of Fine Arts

^Post-nominal: FBA

Federation of British Artists (

^Post-nominal: FCSD

Fellow of the Chartered Society of Designers. (

^Post-nominal: FLS

Fellow of the Linnean Society of London (

^Post-nominal: FRBS

Fellow of the Royal British Society of Sculptors (

^Post-nominal: FRIBA

Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects (

^Post-nominal: FRSA

Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (

^Post-nominal: FSDC

Fellow of the Society of Designer Craftsmen (

^Post-nominal: FWCB

Fellow, The Worshipful Company of Blacksmiths (

^Post-nominal: GradDipFA

Graduate Diploma in Fine Arts.

^Post-nominal: HDFA

Higher Diploma in Fine Art

^Post-nominal: HRSA

Honorary Royal Scottish Academician (

^Post-nominal: HuVAC

Hungarian Visual Artists of Canada (

^Post-nominal: IGFA

International Guild of Figurative Artists (

^Post-nominal: IPAA

Israeli Professional Artists Association.

^Post-nominal: ISC

International Sculpture Center Professional member. (

^Post-nominal: LCSS

The Low Countries Sculpture Society, Brussels, Belgium (

^Post-nominal: LSDC

Licentiate of the Society of Designer Craftsmen (

^Post-nominal: MA

Master of Arts

^Post-nominal: MAOE

Association of Hungarian Creative Artists, in Hungarian Magyar Alkotóművészek Országos Egyesülete (

^Post-nominal: MBBS

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.

^Post-nominal: MBE

Member of the Order of the British Empire

^Post-nominal: MCA

Master Carvers Association. The oldest association of wood and stonecarvers in the UK, the Master Carvers Association stands for the highest quality of work: professionally executed and delivered on time (

^Post-nominal: MCSD

Member of the Chartered Society of Designers (

^Post-nominal: MEd

Master of Education

^Post-nominal: MFA

A Master of Fine Arts, sometimes attained after achiving a BFA along with a DipFA

^Post-nominal: MFAD

Master of Fine Art & Design

^Post-nominal: MIWAS

Marwell International Wildlife Art Society (

^Post-nominal: MMCA

Member of the Master Carvers Association. (

^Post-nominal: MRBS

Member of the Royal British Society of Sculptors. (

^Post-nominal: MSDC

Member of the Society of Designer Craftsmen (

^Post-nominal: MSIAD

Member of the Society of Industrial Artists and Designers

^Post-nominal: NDD

National Design Diploma

^Post-nominal: NEAC

New English Art Club (

^Post-nominal: NESA

The New England Sculptors Association (

^Post-nominal: NSG

National Sculptors' Guild (

^Post-nominal: NSS

National Sculpture Society is the oldest organization of professional sculptors in the United States. (

^Post-nominal: PGCE

Professional Certificate in Education (Teaching qualification)

^Post-nominal: PGDipFA

Postgraduate Diploma in Fine Arts

^Post-nominal: PhD

Doctor of Philosophy

^Post-nominal: PPRBA

Past President Royal Society of British Artists (

^Post-nominal: PPRBS

Past President Royal British Society of Sculptors (

^Post-nominal: PPRIBA

Past President Royal Institute of British Architects (

^Post-nominal: PPRP

Past President Royal Society of Portrait Painters (

^Post-nominal: PPRSMA

Past President of the Royal Society of Marine Artists (

^Post-nominal: PPRWA

Past President of the Royal West of England Academy (

^Post-nominal: PRBS

President Royal British Society of Sculptors (

^Post-nominal: PSWA

President of the Society of Women Artists (

^Post-nominal: PVPSWA

Past Vice President, Society of Women Artists (

^Post-nominal: RA

Royal Academicians (

^Post-nominal: RAAV

The Coalition of artists in the visual arts of Québec (Le Regroupement des artistes en arts visuels du Québec) (

^Post-nominal: RBA

Royal Society of British Artists (

^Post-nominal: RGI

The Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts (

^Post-nominal: RI

The Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours (

^Post-nominal: RIBA

Chartered member of the Royal Institute of British Architects (

^Post-nominal: RMS

Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors & Gravers (

^Post-nominal: ROI

Royal Institute of Oil Painters (

^Post-nominal: RP

Royal Society of Portrait Painters (

^Post-nominal: RSA

Royal Scottish Academician (

^Post-nominal: RSMA

Royal Society of Marine Artists (

^Post-nominal: RSW

Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Watercolours (

^Post-nominal: RWA

The Royal West of England Academy (

^Post-nominal: RWRHS

Founded in 1892, The Royal Windsor Rose and Horticultural Society (RWRHS) is one the oldest local organisations in Windsor and have been honoured with the patronage of five sovereigns; Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, King George V, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II. The society is aimed at all ages in the community and is all about providing entertainment, edification and competitions. The RWRHS summer show was established well before Chelsea and Hampton Court and was once one of the most important Flower Shows in Britain. (

^Post-nominal: SAA

Society of Animal Artists (

^Post-nominal: SAC

Konstnärscentrum - The Swedish Artists' Centre (

^Post-nominal: SBA

Society of Botanical Artists (

^Post-nominal: SCA

Society of Canadian Artists (

^Post-nominal: SEA

Society of Equestrian Artists (

^Post-nominal: SFP

Society of Floral Painters (

^Post-nominal: SÍM

SÍM (Samband Íslenskra Myndlistarmanna) The Association of Icelandic Visual Arts (

^Post-nominal: SPS

Society of Portrait Sculptors (

^Post-nominal: SSA

Professional Member of the Society of Scottish Artists. (

^Post-nominal: SSC

Sculptors Society of Canada (

^Post-nominal: SSS

Surrey Sculpture Society. (

^Post-nominal: Swedish Sculptors` Association

Skulptörförbundet - Swedish Sculptors` Association. (

^Post-nominal: SWLA

Society of Wildlife Artists (

^Post-nominal: SWSA

South-west Sculptors Association (

^Post-nominal: UA

The United Society of Artists (

^Post-nominal: UBA

Union of Bulgarian Artists (

^Post-nominal: USWA

Ulster Society of Women Artists (

^Post-nominal: VAS

Visual Arts Scotland (

^Post-nominal: VPRBS

Vice President Royal British Society of Sculptors (

^Post-nominal: VPRP

Vice President Royal Society of Portrait Painters (

^Post-nominal: VPRSMA

Vice President Royal Society of Marine Artists (

^Post-nominal: VPSWA

Vice President, Society of Women Artists (



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Customer comment on 'Jackass Penguins (Bronze Pair Standing statue)' by Camilla Le May
On behalf of the California Academy of Sciences, we would like to recognize your responsive and high level of professionalism in helping us purchase a bronze sculpture of “Jackass Penguins” by Camilla Le May. We requested a very quick turnaround for shipment to San Francisco and you were able to far exceed our expectation with your timely delivery. The Art Parks Gallery in Guernsey took special care in packaging the bronze so that it arrived in impeccable condition.... [Read more]
Stephanie T., San Francisco, California, United States.